Completed Projects of Thermal Spraying (Process Technology)


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Hendrik Heinemann

Chief Engineer and Team Leader TS-P


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HVAF-Sim – Simulation-based process development for the application of MCrAlY coatings using the AC-HVAF process

Short description:

The aim of the project is to develop AC-HVAF (Activated Combustion High Velocity Air Fuel) processes using numerical simulation for the application of MCrAlY coatings. For this purpose, it is necessary to study the flow and combustion phenomena during the process, since they can influence the in-flight behaviour of the particles. The particle velocity in the free-jet stream will be determined using process diagnostics to validate the simulation model. The properties of the coatings will be analysed to derive the correlation between the process parameters and the coating properties. Poster 437084607

Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Porject number: 437084607
Duration: March 1, 2021 to February 28, 2023

PlasmaNozzle – Increasing the energy efficiency of plasma spraying by means of simulation-based process development

Short description:

The primary goal of the project is to investigate the potential for increasing the energy efficiency of plasma spraying by using a fixed nozzle extension. The nozzle extension should surround the plasma free-jet and thus prevent air entrainments from mixing with the plasma gas. In order to investigate the influence of such nozzle extension and to optimize its geometry, the existing simulation models of the plasma jet should first be extended accordingly. The geometry of the nozzle extension should then be optimized using algorithms (genetic algorithms or particle swarm optimization) and experimentally validated. Besides energy efficiency, the nozzle extension also offers great potential to improve the coating properties. Thus, the possible influence of a fixed nozzle extension on the coating properties, such as the porosity or oxide component, will be investigated in this project.

Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Porject number: BO 1979/79-1
Duration: February 1, 2021 to January 31, 2023

Experimental analysis of thermo-mechanical properties of thermally sprayed coatings

Short description:

Increasing the precision of the parts produced in the melt related production processes is the central research focus of the Collaborative Research Center 1120. In general, the precision can be significantly increased by specifically controlling the heat inflow and outflow. With the help of thermally sprayed coating (TS coatings), the heat transfer on the surface can be specifically controlled by increasing or decreasing the thermal conductivity of the passive TS coatings or by locally generating heat on the surface with the help of the electrical heater coatings. In this project thermally sprayed electrical heater coatings will be considered as the heat source. In contrary to the thermal insulation coatings, the porosity is no longer the dominant factor, rather the electron and phonon conduction in solids should be taken into account. Poster SFB 1120 – Teilprojekt A12

Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Project number: SFB 1120 – Teilprojekt A12
Duration: July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2022

Development of simulative approaches for specific development of the properties of plasma sprayed coatings

Short description:

Project A10 deals with the tailored development of plasma-sprayed heat insulation coatings by means of numerical prediction. During atmospheric plasma spraying, not only process parameters but also disturbances influence the process characteristics. As a result, processes that occur during the transition of the coating building particles from the solid into the (partly) liquid state and from the (partly) liquid state into the solid state are also influenced. The correlation between the process parameters and the coating properties were successful in the first phase of the project, both numerically and experimentally. The focus of the second phase of the project lies on the analysis of disturbance-dependent process changes by means of modeling and simulation. The aim of the second phase is predicting the coating properties while taking into account the disturbances that occur in the real processes. Poster SFB 1120 – Subproject A10

Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Project number: SFB 1120 – Teilprojekt A10
Duration: July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2022

Manipulation of the electric arc inside of a cascaded (DC-SCSAPG) to improve the coating properties

Short description:

This research project focuses on the investigation of the plasma column in novel cascaded direct current single cathode single anode plasma generator (DC-SCSAPG). To observe it´s behaviour, numerical simulations of the plasma generator are conducted. With the help of the project partner, the Institute of Plasma Technology and Mathematics of the Federal Armed Forces, Munich, Germany, the position of the plasma column attachment point is located experimentally. In a further step, this position shall be manipulated with the help of external magnetic fields. Subsequently, the influence of this manipulation on the coating properties is investigated. Poster BO 1979/50-1

Förderinstitution: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Projektnummer: BO 1979/50-1
Laufzeit: November 1, 2017 to July 31, 2021

Developing a method for in-situ determination of the deposition efficiency in thermal spraying

Short description:

The aim of the research project is to develop a new method to determine the deposition efficiency as the difference between the mass flow rate of the incoming particles and the particles bouncing off the substrate. The particle sizes and velocities are determined by optical particle diagnostics. The deposition efficiency of different process parameters is derived from this data. As a result, the coating development process is accelerated. Poster BO 1979/51-1

Funding: German Research Foundation (DFG)
Porject number: BO 1979/51-1
Duration: April 1, 2018 to June 30, 2021

Thermally sprayed heating coatings for the application in plastics processing

Short description:

In this research project, a thermally sprayed coating system for the heating of injection moulding tools is developed in cooperation with the project partner obz innovation GmbH. The aim is to achieve shorter cycles and less defects in injection moulding. One of the challenges is the required power input into the coatings to achieve the desired heating rates. Likewise, the project focuses on proving the resistance of the coating system against the loads in injection moulding. At the end of the project, a demonstrator will be built to prove the applicability of the developed coating system.Poster ZF4059003SU6

Funding: Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand (ZIM)
Porject number: ZF4059003SU6
Duration: April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019

Determination of the formation mechanisms of emissions during thermal spraying with a focus on ultrafine particles and the risk assessment of individual dusts under production-relevant conditions

Short description:

The potential risk of airborne particles has been known for a long time, but cannot be assessed with sufficient accuracy, especially in thermal spraying (TS). Especially due to insufficient research results regarding the formation mechanisms, coating development and process design. Therefore it is of overriding interest to close existing gaps in knowledge and to further clarify possible risks on the basis of reliable data. A major goal is to reduce dust generation, especially the ultrafine fraction, during the spraying process. The first task is to clarify the mechanisms on which the formation of emissions, especially the ultrafine particles, is based and to what extent this formation can be influenced by variations in material compositions, thermal spraying processes and process parameters. In addition, the resulting emissions are assessed with regard to their toxicity. Emissions from thermal spraying represent an important research focus for the surface technology industry, which is being investigated in cooperation with the Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine (IASU). Poster 18.653N

Funding: Joint industrial research and development (IGF)
Porject number:


Duration: August 1, 2016 to March 31, 2019

Development of a method for the qualification of sealers for thermal spray coatings

Short description:

The aim of the research project is the development a new method to qualify novel sealers for thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings can exhibit a certain degree of porosity, e.g. to reduce their thermal conductivity. Sealers can be used to close these pores. Established methods for the qualification of these sealers are, however, complex and expensive. Therefore, a new method, based on the gas flux through the sealed coating, is developed. Based on the results, small companies can develop and qualify new sealers faster and more cost-efficient. Poster Zf4059001CK5

Funding: Central Innovation Programme for SMEs
Porject number: Zf4059001CK5
Duration: November 1, 2015 to October 31, 2017


Sustainable corrosion protection of offshore wind turbines by sealed thermal spray zinc coatings

Short description:

The aim of this research project is the development of zinc-based, thermally sprayed corrosion protection coating for offshore wind turbines. Through the holistic approach – from material development to post treatment – the understanding of coating build-up as well as the corrosion mechanisms could be deepened. This resulted in a significant lifetime increase while the costs for the coating application were reduced. Poster 0325672C

Funding: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)
Porject number: 0325672C
Duration: 01.11.2013 bis 30.04.2017